A “flow state” is when a person is being carried along with a task. Many of us experience a type of flow state when we are immersed in a computer game. In the classroom productive flow is that magic time when a student is fully engaged in an activity. It is when learning is most effective. As educators it is what we strive for, but what can we do to facilitate a flow state?
There are, in my opinion, a number of things which contribute to achieving a flow state. Many are not controllable by the teacher, but one important contributor is. Achieving flow is heavily influenced by the level of challenge presented by the learning task. To illustrate this we will return to considering computer games. If a computer game is too easy a gamer will quickly lose interest, similarly if a game is too difficult a gamer will become frustrated with the lack of progress. When the game offers a challenge at the correct level a gamer will experience a flow state. Computer games are carefully designed to increment difficulty as a gamer progresses up through levels, to keep the gamer engaged.
Applying this to the classroom, students will be most likely to enter a flow state when the challenge provided is high enough to engage, but not so high as to frustrate. It is here that we can see a connection between Gameful Learning Design and the familiar Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development In other words students will be more motivated and enter a flow state when the challenge applied is just outside what the students can do without extra thought and support. Gamful Learning Design provides an environment where students are constantly “leveling up” as in a computer game.